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Components Of Inertial Navigation System
Oct 19, 2018

1, gyroscope

The gyroscope is the main component of the inertial system. A gyroscope usually refers to a rotor that is mounted at a high speed in a gimbal. The rotor can be precessed around an axis or two axes perpendicular to the axis of rotation. The former is called a single degree of freedom gyroscope, and the latter is called a two degree of freedom gyroscope. instrument. The gyroscope has a fixed axis and precessibility, and these characteristics are used to produce a rate gyro with a sensitive angular velocity and a position gyro with a sensitive angular deviation. Since optical, MEMS, and the like have been introduced into the development of gyroscopes, it is now customary to collectively refer to devices capable of performing gyro functions as gyros. There are various types of gyroscopes. According to the number of precession degrees of the gyro rotor main shaft, it can be divided into two-degree-of-freedom gyroscopes and single-degree-of-freedom gyroscopes. According to the support system, ball bearings can be divided into gyroscopes, liquid floats and air floats. Magnetic gyro, flexible gyro (power tuned flexible gyro), electrostatic gyro; rotor gyro that is divided into physical properties using high-speed rotating body according to physical principles, and hemispherical resonant gyro and micro-mechanical working by other physical principles Gyro, ring laser gyro and fiber optic gyroscope.


Single-degree-of-freedom gyroscope sensitive angular velocity, two-degree-of-freedom gyroscope sensitive angular displacement. In order to convert the angular velocity and angular displacement into signals available in the inertial system, the gyroscope requires a signal sensor. In order to control the gyroscope to be precessed according to a certain rule, a torque device is required.


2, accelerometer

Accelerometers are one of the core components of an inertial navigation system. By relying on its measurement of contrast force, the inertial navigation system is determined to determine the position and speed of the carrier and the task of generating a tracking signal. The measurement of the carrier acceleration must be performed very accurately and is carried out in a reference coordinate system stabilized by the gyro. In an inertial navigation system that does not require height control, as long as two accelerometers can accomplish the above tasks, otherwise there should be three accelerometers.


Accelerometer classification: According to the relationship between input and output, it can be divided into ordinary type, integral type and secondary integral type; according to physical principle, it can be divided into pendulum type and non-swing type. Pendulum type accelerometer includes pendulum type integral accelerometer and liquid. Floating pendulum accelerometer and flexible pendulum accelerometer, non-pendulum accelerometer includes vibrating beam accelerometer and electrostatic accelerometer; according to the degree of freedom of measurement can be divided into single axis, double axis, three axes; according to measurement accuracy can be divided High precision (better than 10−4m/s2), medium accuracy (10-2 m/s2–10-3 m/s2) and low accuracy (less than 0.1m/s2).



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