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Why can a vertical gyroscope measure the attitude angle of an aircraft?
Oct 19, 2018

When the gyro is rotated at a high speed, it can stand upright on the ground, and even if it is touched by hand, it will not fall down immediately. This is the conservation of angular momentum. By using this characteristic of the gyro, the pendulum sensitive element can be used to generate the correction torque to guide the rotor shaft of the gyro to the center of the earth, and the local vertical line can be determined without error due to external force, thereby further accurately obtaining the tilt angle and the pitch. angle. The two-degree-of-freedom gyroscope is generally used inside the vertical gyroscope, which is different from the gyroscope in daily life, but the basic principle is consistent.


Vertical gyroscope application on aircraft

The attitude angle of the aircraft during flight is crucial to the pilot and is the key to proper operation of the aircraft. In some cases, relying on the pilot's feelings to judge the horizon can create illusions and even lead to flight accidents. Therefore, it is indispensable for the pilot to sense the attitude angle by means of a sensor. This sensor is a vertical gyroscope.


In addition, in the case of automatic aircraft driving, the angle of deviation between the aircraft and the set attitude is required, so that the aircraft adjusts the attitude to fly in accordance with the given attitude. Vertical gyroscopes can also provide attitude angle information to other sensors for proper operation.



Vertical gyroscope establishes local vertical line reference

When the vertical gyroscope measures the attitude angle of the aircraft, the first task is to establish a local vertical line reference. It is usually built using pendulum. However, the pendulum function has limitations. When the flight state of the aircraft changes, the pendulum will receive acceleration and cause the cycloid to deviate. That is, the pendulum can determine the direction of the vertical line, but it is not stable enough.


However, this can be solved. If the autotransmission axis of the two-degree-of-freedom gyroscope is adjusted to the local vertical direction, the auto-transmission axis will not deviate even if the acceleration is received. However, the autotransmission axis of the two-degree-of-freedom gyroscope does not have to be in the direction of the vertical, that is, stable but not directional.


By using the complementary advantages of the two, the direction of the autotransmission axis can be adjusted by the pendulum to establish a local vertical line reference. These two are also the main components of the vertical gyroscope.


In addition to applications on aircraft, vertical gyroscopes are used in a wide range of other moving objects, such as airships, ships, sports cars, and more. It can be seen that vertical gyroscopes play a vital role in many applications, and in some cases, no errors can occur, otherwise it may happen as a life-threatening accident. Therefore, it is very necessary to make the accuracy and stability of the vertical gyroscope as good as possible.



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